Who We Are?
We are called to contemplate, experience and share the unconditional love of the Father for every person; love that is expressed to the full in the “most loving, most generous and most patient spirit” of the Son who gave His life freely for all.
We share in the saving mission of Jesus, seeking to take on the same traits of charity, gentleness, humility, meekness, zeal and fortitude; we follow the example of Mary, Mother of Charity at the foot of the cross.
We live community life where, each day, we learn to recognize the presence of the Lord. Like real Sisters, we share what we are and have, trying to discern and carry out God’s project while learning to give and receive love and growing in freedom.
We are present in all the continents in 36 countries, working in the fields of education, evangelization, pastoral care of the sick, formation of lay people in the apostolate, facilitating Spiritual Exercises, where we are committed to live Magdalene’s greatest desire: “above all make Jesus known and loved”, giving preference to the poorest.
Faithful to the apostolic project of our Foundress and inserted in the Local Church, we dedicate our care to those who are most in need of education, evangelization and assistance in sickness through the “ministries of charity” which Magdalene wanted “perennial and continuous”.
As completion and extension of these ministries, we form the Laity for the apostolate and promote the Spiritual Exercises. (Rule of Life #53)
Northward, the Canossian Sisters have been in San Jose City, Nueva Ecija since 1989. Bishop Leo Drona invited them to help in the newly established Diocese. The Sisters are involved in catechesis, formation of catechists and lay leaders, community-based health programs (CBHP), organization of tribal communities and formation of core leaders, initiation to self-help and income-generating projects.
Through her contemplation of Christ Crucified, Magdalene comes home to her true identity as she discovers herself, like Christ, as both daughter and humble servant. In contemplating the heart of Christ Crucified, Magdalene’s own heart awakens to the real meaning of love and her response is the desire to “do the same”. Her own heart is set on fire with a love so deep and universal that her desire is to be able to embrace, to give “hospitality” in her own heart, to the whole of humanity, in imitation of the heart of Christ Crucified. It is the same charity that Magdalene both experiences and discovers in Christ Crucified that she wishes to share with others: to animate all their actions and works in the spirit of charity of Jesus Crucified, “a spirit of charity, gentleness, meekness and humility; a spirit of zeal and fortitude, a most amiable, most generous and most patient spirit.” (St. Magdalene of Canossa) Magdalene exhorted her Daughters to love Our Lady of Sorrows and honor her as Mother of Charity at the foot of the Cross, to have recourse to her as model of faith and humble love for continual docility to the Spirit and fidelity to the charism of charity till the end.
Magdalene shared this spirituality to her Daughters and to the lay persons she formed for the Church. Since then, the Canossian Sisters and other lay persons attracted to the same call have been deepening this spirituality and has drawn them closer to God and their neighbors.
St. Magdalene of Canossa: A Woman with a Big Heart
Magdalene of Canossa (1774-1835), our Foundress, received from the Spirit the gift of penetrating deeply into the riches of God’s love in its purest and most sublime expression: Jesus Crucified.
The understanding of this “greatest love” formed within her the heart of a mother and the ardour of an apostle. St. Magdalene of Canossa was a woman who believed in the love of the Lord Jesus. Sent by the Holy Spirit among those who are most in need, she served them with the heart of a mother and the zeal of an apostle. Known for her creative response to the needs of her time, Magdalene initiated her apostolate at the age of thirty five, after a long and painful search for God’s will which began when she was seventeen.
Her Birth and Childhood
She was born in Verona on March 1, 1774, of a noble and wealthy family, the second of six children. Through painful trials, like the death of her mother for a second marriage, sickness and misunderstanding, the Lord guided her in mysterious ways which Magdalene tried hard to understand.
At the age of seventeen Magdalene felt herself called to the cloister. Twice she tried out her vocation in the Carmel. But she felt very strongly urged by the Spirit of God to dedicate her life to the service of the poor and the needy. As this was not possible in the cloister, she returned to her family. The tragic historical event at the close of the 18th century and the painful family situation prevented her from offering herself totally to God and neighbor. She continued to live in Canossa Palace, to administer the large family patrimony and to take care of her little nephew entrusted to her by her dying aunt.
From her luxurious palace Magdalene gazed on the misery of the poor living in the slums of Verona, where the French Revolution, the various foreign dominations and the local wars had left behind obvious signs of devastation and human suffering. Amidst her heavy family responsibilities and other charitable activities, Magdalene found the time to intensify her prayer life through the daily contemplation of the love of Jesus Crucified and of the Mother of Sorrows. The love of God spurred her to open herself to the cry of the poor, hungry for bread, for knowledge and for God.
Her Goal Fulfilled
Faced by so many needs around her, Magdalene felt inadequate. She sought for help and found her first companions who accepted her invitation to share a life a poverty and unconditional charity.
In 1808, after having overcome the last objections of her family, she left Canossa Palace to start in Verona, what she deeply realized as being God’s Will for her: to serve Christ in the poor. The motivating force of charity, like an ever spreading fire, made Magdalene open her heart to the urgent needs of other cities like Venice, Milan, Bergamo and Trent, where in a few decades, she founded Houses and sent Daughters who had grown in number.
Magdalene obtained the Pope’s approval of the Rules of the Institute in 1828. Assisted by her Daughters, she died in Verona, as she had foretold, on Passion Friday, April 10, 1835.
On December 7, 1941 Pope Pius XII proclaimed her Blessed. On October 2, 1988 Magdalene was officially proclaimed a Saint by His Holiness Pope John Paul II.
A Mother Open to the World
“The spirit of the Daughters of Charity is to be detached from everything and from everybody, to be available to serve the Lord in every country.” Animated by her spirit, the Daughters of Charity in 1860, set sail for the Far East to announce to the non-believers that the Father, in His Son Jesus Christ, loves all mankind. Today the Institute of the Daughters of Charity is present in the six Continents and 36 countries.
There are 2640 Sisters spread in all the continents around the world in 36 countries where they minister for the spreading of the Kingdom of God through the following basic apostolic options: education, evangelization and pastoral activity, assistance to the sick and suffering, formation of the laity and spiritual exercises.
The Sons of Charity
Magdalene of Canossa is Mother not only to the Daughters but also to the Sons of Charity. For about hundred years, the Sons of Charity managed, in the midst of difficulties to keep alive the ideals of Magdalene, through the survival of one small community. They handed down as their precious heritage, a spirit of humble and generous service to the poor and the youth. Today, the Sons of Charity are on the increase, bringing with them the strength of their priesthood, the name and the love of Christ to their brothers in Italy and overseas.
FOR MORE INFORMATION LOG ON TO: www.canossaphil.org
The Institute of the Ursuline Nuns of Saint Girolamo in Somasca was founded by the Cittadini sisters, Caterina (1801-1857) and Giuditta (1803-1840), in the first half of the nineteenth century in Somasca, a hamlet of Vergurago village, now in the province of Lecco, but belonging to the Diocese of Bergamo.
Caterina and Giuditta were orphaned in early childhood and experienced an extremely precarious youth, both physically and emotionally. They were welcomed for many years in the orphanage of the Conventino in Bergamo, where they received diplomas as elementary school teachers. When they came of age, they made their home in Calolzio. Afterwards, they moved in 1826 to Somasca, where Caterina taught in the village school until 1845. At first they lived in rented houses, then in a house of their own which would become the “Motherhouse” of their educational work and of the new religious family which they initiated.
In those years their desire for consecration undoubtedly developed and became firm, taking its shape in their everyday educational work among young girls.
In fact the Cittadini sisters, whose personal experience had been so hard, understood the urgency of the human and Christian education of young girls and, little by little, carried out their life projects. In 1829 they welcomed the first girls; in 1831 they began a private school and in 1836 a boarding school for girls’ education, works run by Giuditta. In 1847 Caterina applied for official approval to include a small orphanage for outcast young girls, who were numerous in that area. In 1840, because of the early death of Giuditta, Caterina took charge of the whole work.
Caterina and Giuditta did their best with all their abilities and means for the educational benefit of the girls left in their care. They clearly manifested the ideal of their utter consecration to God in the form of motherly education. They wanted to be “real mothers in Christ” for “those souls that the Lord had redeemed with His blood and entrusted to their care as a valuable treasure”; they committed themselves to the well-rounded education of the girls, “training them in every branch of teaching concerning not only education but also needlework and knitting as well housework,” without omitting anything which could “contribute to their spiritual and physical improvement.”
The history of the foundation of the Ursulines in Somasca from 1826 to 1859 was marked by the experience of the cross. When Bergamo’s Bishop Pietro Luigi Speranza established the congregation according to the Rule on December 14, 1857, Caterina and Giuditta, the foundation stones of the new family, were already in the glory of God.
The congregation obtained diocesan approval of its Constitutions, rewritten according to the directions of the Holy See, on August 15, 1915; a Decree of Praise on August 5, 1917; papal approval on July 8, 1927; and final approval of the Constitutions on June 4, 1935. From 1882 to 1950, many houses and apostolic activities were opened or included in the service of the educational mission in different regions of Italy.
At the beginning of the 1950s, the Institute expanded its work to the situations of emigrants, first in Switzerland and later in Belgium. In 1964 the Sisters crossed the Atlantic with their first mission ad gentes in Bolivia, cooperating with priests from the Diocese of Bergamo. The Institute later spread to Brazil in 1975, to India in 1977, to the Philippines in 1985, and to Indonesia in 2003.
The human-spiritual-charismatic trait that marks all the communitarian-apostolic experiences of the Ursulines of Saint Gerolamo in Somasca, in Europe, and in the mission ad gentes, was undoubtedly their “vocation for the people,” the simplicity of acting with a motherly heart as educational apostles close to people, with a special care for children, girls and youth. They wanted to share the joy and the suffering of families, sick people, old people, and those who experienced insecurity and loneliness. Still today, fidelity to their history is rooted in two women, Blessed Caterina Cittadini and her sister Giuditta. Sure of God’s fatherly and providential love, they opened their hearts, once scarred by a lack of love, to the miracle of an educational fruitfulness that could give others joy, dignity and hope.
Nursery schools, primary schools, lower secondary schools belonging to the Institute (Italy, India, Philippines); nursery schools and parish activities (Italy) and schools belonging to Catholic institutions in Bolivia; pastoral vocational work with youth; centers welcoming women and children in difficult circumstances; orphanages in the countries of the mission ad gentes; hostels for young women students and workers and houses for spiritual exercises and holidays; regional health services in retirement homes and nursing homes (Italy); health care services in out-patients clinics, pastoral ministry to women and children in the region of the mission ad gentes.
Italy, Bolivia, Brazil, India, Philippines, Indonesia (The communities outside Europe are structured in four Delegations.)
The Dominican Sisters of Our Lady of Remedies, Pampanga, the Philippines, and the Dominican Sisters of Adrian, Michigan, have enjoyed warm and close ties since 1960, when communications developed regarding a possible Philippine foundation. That year, in response to Bishop Emilio Cinense’s request for a foundation in his diocese, San Fernando, Province of Pampanga, Mother Gerald agreed to provide formation in Adrian for interested candidates, and to send two Adrian Dominican Sisters to be with the new Congregation for as long as needed.
Esperanza Bonifacio and Milagros Garcia arrived in Adrian on September 6, 1961, followed the next September by Evangelina Fernandez and Digna San Vicente. The young women entered the novitiate in January 1964. A year later, they received the Dominican habit and their new names: Sisters Dominic Fernandez, Thomas San Vicente, Joseph Bonifacio, and Milagros Garcia.
Foundation in 1965
In the spring of 1965, Bishop Cinense bestowed on their new community the title they requested, Nuestra Señora de los Remedios (Our Lady of Remedies). Sister Dominic (Evangelina) returned to the Philippines upon the death of her father on May 30, 1965. Settling in the Diocese of San Fernando, she prepared a convent for the arrival of the other three. The first convent took up part of the fourth floor of a building owned by the diocese; the Young Christian Workers occupied the remainder of the floor.
Adrian Dominican Sisters Ellen Vincent McClain and Mary Philip Ryan arrived on October 2, 1965, and were formally welcomed by the three founding members of the Remedios; Sister Milagros Garcia had left the community. The three Remedios Sisters clearly demonstrated their openness to mission with their presence to the people in the marketplace and the slums that were on the fringes of the convent. By the end of the first year, they had already attracted a new candidate, Lourdes Pamintuam. They also befriended Benedictine Sisters from Germany, who ministered at Assumption College (now University).
Sisters Ellen Vincent and Mary Philip each taught two courses at Assumption, which enrolls students from the first grade through college. Sister Joseph and future candidates earned their college degrees at Assumption, while Sisters Dominic and Thomas earned their master’s degrees through weekend classes at the Ateneo, the Jesuit Loyola University.
Opening a School Convent
Our Lady of Remedies MotherhouseDuring their second year, the Sisters moved to Assumption Complex, which would later be the site of their Motherhouse and novitiate. It was there that they opened a school, using four vacant classrooms. About 100 children in second through fifth grades came on the opening day in January 1966. By the second semester, the school had grown so much that four new teachers had to be hired. Assumption Seminary built a new school and convent, which opened on December 1, 1966. The Sisters later developed a social service ministry to the people of the barrios. Through the years, as Sister Mary Philip wrote, the Sisters lived “among the impoverished and exploited people, struggling with them for human dignity and rights, educating, counseling, ministering.”
When Sisters Ellen Vincent and Mary Philip left the Philippines in 1969, Sisters Marcine Klemm and Rosemary Marson took their place. Sister Marcine served as Major Superior while Sister Rosemary assumed responsibility for formation. On December 24, 1972, Sister Rosemary Ferguson, OP, Prioress, formally transferred the authority of leadership to the Dominican Sisters of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios. Sister Evangelina Fernandez was appointed Prioress by Bishop Cinense; she was later elected to the position by the Sisters. Sister Evangelina is recognized as the Congregation’s Founding Prioress.
Over the ensuing decades, members of every Adrian Dominican General Council visited the Remedios Sisters, as did numerous other Adrian Dominican Sisters, nurturing and renewing the longstanding ties.
Diverse Ministries Today
Now numbering 36, the Sisters have taken on a variety of ministries, including schools in the towns of Apalit, Lubao and Angeles City; and Assumption University in San Fernando.
Holy Rosary Foundation in Tala responds to the educational needs of the children of people with leprosy. Through their Holy Trinity ministry, the Sisters assist people with special needs, and feed the children of poor indigenous people who live in the mountains in Villa Maria. They also administer a shelter for women and children through Mother of Good Council and minister with farm families who were displaced by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991.
In recent years, the Sisters have reached out to suffering people in other countries. In 1999, they sent Sisters to Taiwan to minister to Filipino migrant workers, and in 2005 they began a mission in Norway.
The Dominican Sisters of Our Lady of Remedies have come full circle. In November 2011, they merged with the Dominican Sisters of Adrian. They comprise the Mission Chapter of Our Lady of Remedies, extending the outreach and awareness of the Adrian Dominican Congregation. Sister Maria Soccoro Garcia, OP, who was Prioress at the time of the merger, served as Interim Chapter Prioress. Sister Zenaida Nacpil, OP, was elected in April 2012 and took on her new role as the first Chapter Prioress in July 2012.
The Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart (FDNSC) was founded by Fr. Jules Chevalier, MSC in 1874 in Issoudun, France. This was 20 years after he founded the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart (MSC). The Congregations founded by Fr. Chevalier together with the Associates, have a Mission in the Church to make known the love of God which is revealed in the Heart of Jesus, bringing the love of Jesus especially to the poor and unloved and to do this in union with Mary, Our Lady of the Sacred Heart. She is honored and loved in a special way, acknowledging her as the Treasurer of His Heart.
The Congregation is mainly but not exclusively missionary. The Sisters carry a varied apostolate in 25 countries all over the world. They are engaged in teaching at all levels, nursing, media and various types of social and catechetical apostolates, administration and religious formation. The Sisters also take part in Catholic Youth Organization, Adult Education, Training in Liturgy and direction of Retreats and Recollections. Home visitation especially of the sick is part of their parish apostolate.
The special Pontifical blessing for the foundation in the Philippines was obtained on March 19, 1968 – Feast of St. Joseph. However, the first 5 Sisters arrived in Manila on 31st of the same month and in Munoz on April 4. Eventually, Most Rev. Bishop Vicente Reyes, D.D. recognized the presence of the DOLSH in the Diocese of Cabanatuan on May 13, 1968. Munoz was the First Foundation in the Philippines and to date the Congregation is now serving the Dioceses of San Jose, Manila, Cebu and Surigao.
There are only two Sisters now in the DOLSH Convent at the Sacred Heart Parish in Bantug, Munoz, N.E. Sr. Irene S. Munsayac, FDNSC is serving for years in San Sebastian School as Guidance Counselor while Sr. Connie V. Santillan, FDNSC, former principal of San Sebastian (2005-2007) is now serving as Worship Head and Catechetical Coordinator in the parish. She also coordinates the DOLSH Associates and conducts Recollections to different groups. (2011-2013)
The Sisters of Charity of Our Lady Mother of Mercy are a Roman Catholic congregation founded in the Netherlands in 1832 by the Rev. Johannes Zwijsen, pastor of Tilburg, aided by Mary M. Leijsen, for the instruction of children and the betterment of people deprived of spiritual aid.
The Diocese of Utrecht had been vacant for about three hundred years when, on the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy in the Netherlands in 1853, Bishop Johannes Zwijsen, of Gerra, was made Archbishop of Utrecht and Primate of the Netherlands. He found no Catholic institutions for the education of girls in this vast diocese, neither were there any teaching religious institutes, with the exception of his humble congregation.
The founder's accession to the see gave fresh impetus to his cherished work, and from this time the congregation spread rapidly throughout the Netherlands and Belgium. Among these institutions were homes for the aged and infirm, the blind, the mute and also hospitals.
The Rules were approved by Pope Gregory XVI in 1843, and Pope Pius IX approved the congregation in 1848. About the middle of the nineteenth century, when cholera was raging in the Netherlands, the heroic charity of the sisters even won the recognition of the fiercely anti-catholic King William III who conferred decorations of honour on the congregation.
In December 2005, this congregation had 889 members and 115 houses.
The Salesians of Don Bosco (or the Salesian Society, originally known as the Society of St. Francis de Sales) is a Roman Catholic religious institute founded in the late nineteenth century by Saint John Bosco in order to, through works of charity, to care for the young and poor children of the industrial revolution. The Salesians' charter describes the society's mission as "the Christian perfection of its associates obtained by the exercise of spiritual and corporal works of charity towards the young, especially the poor, and the education of boys to the priesthood". The institute is named for St. Francis de Sales, an early-modern bishop of Geneva. St. Don Bosco died on the 31st of January 1888.
In 1845 Don John Bosco ("Don" being a traditional Italian honorific for a priest) opened a night school for boys in Valdocco, now part of the municipality of Turin in Italy. In the coming years, he opened several more schools, and in 1857 drew up a set of rules for his helpers, which became the Rule of the Society of St. Francis de Sales, which Pope Pius IX approved definitively in 1873. The institute grew rapidly, with houses established in France and Argentina within a year of the society's formal recognition. Its official print organ, the Salesian Bulletin, was first published in 1877. Over the next decade, the Salesians expanded into Austria, Britain, Spain, and several countries in South America. The death of Don Bosco in 1888 did not slow the institute's growth, and by 1911 the Salesians were established throughout the world, including Colombia, China, India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and the United States. The society continues to operate worldwide; in 2000, it counted more than 20,000 members in 2,711 houses. It is the third largest missionary organization in the world.
The Salesians of Don Bosco are headed by the Rector Major and the society's general council; each of the ninety-four geographical provinces is headed by a Provincial. These officers serve six-year terms; the Rector Major and the members of the general council are elected by the Chapter General, which meets every six years or upon the death of the Rector Major. Each local Salesian community is headed by a superior, called a Rector (or more commonly, "Director"), who is appointed to a three-year term and can be renewed for a second three-year term.
Salesian communities primarily operate shelters for homeless or at-risk youths; schools; technical, vocational, and language instruction centers for youths and adults; and boys' clubs and community centers. In some areas they run parish churches. Salesians are also active in publishing and other public communication activities, as well as mission work, especially in Asia (Siberia - in the Yakutsk area), Africa, and South America (Yanomami). The Salesian Bulletin is now published in fifty-two editions, in thirty languages.
In the 1990s Salesians launched new works in the area of tertiary education, and today have a network of over 58 colleges and universities. The official university of the Salesian Society is the Salesian Pontifical University in Rome.
Jules Chevalier, the founder of the Chevalier Family, had a vision of a new world emerging and he wanted to make known the Gospel message of God's love and care for all men and women and to evoke a response in every human heart. He especially valued love, concern, compassion, understanding, respect and acceptance of every individual. His vision was based on the words of Jesus:
"I give you a new commandment, love one another. Just as I have loved you, you also must love one another. By this love you have for one another, everyone will know that you are my disciples." (John 13:34)
The motto of the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart is: May the Sacred Heart of Jesus be loved everywhere! The priests, deacons and brothers of the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart are known as MSCs (from the Latin, Missionarii Sacratissimi Cordis). As with most religious congregations in the Catholic Church there is significant involvement on the part of the laity, who may also serve on the missions. The international headquarters is in Rome with numerous communities throughout the world.
The origin of the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart is closely connected with the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the B. V. M. The means to lay their foundation being the outcome of special prayers addressed to the Mother of God during the nine days preceding event of 8 Dec., 1854. The founder had pledged himself to honour the Blessed Virgin in a special manner. Chevalier fulfilled his promise the following year by erecting a shrine dedicated to the honour of Mary under the title of "Our Lady of the Sacred Heart ".
In 1864 he founded the Archconfraternity of the Sacred Heart and sought to have it established in every parish as a means to develop devotion to, and appreciation of, the love that Christ bears all people. In 1867, the Congregation opened its first school in Chezal-Benoît in the Centre Region of France.
In September 1881, at the request of Pope Leo XIII the Congregation sent its first missionaries overseas. From Barcelona three missionaries set out for Papua New Guinea and founded the first overseas mission in 1882 near Rabaul on the island of New Britain.
In 1885, a supply base for the Papua New Guinea mission was founded in Sydney, Australia and the Australian Province was established in 1905. The Congregation continued to grow and established provinces in the Netherlands (1894), the United States (1939), Spain (1946), Ireland (1952), Indonesia (1971) and the Dominican Republic (1986).
The Society of Our Lady of the Most Holy Trinity (SOLT) is a Society of Apostolic Life within the Roman Catholic Church. It was founded in 1958 by Father James H. Flanagan, a priest from the United States. The Society maintains missions in various countries, describing itself as Marian-Trinitarian, Catholic, Missionary, and Family. Membership of the Society includes priests, permanent deacons, religious sisters, religious brothers and the lay faithful.
The charism (gift) which the Society brings to the universal Church is the formation of disciples of Jesus and Mary serving on ecclesial teams in areas of deepest apostolic need. While in seminary Father Flanagan’s realised that organizations where people work as a team, recognising and accepting individual talents, are the ones which are most successful. This is why the Society strives to have priests, permanent deacons, religious sisters, religious brothers and lay faithful in all of its communities, no matter how small.
In 1957, five years after his ordination to the Priesthood, Flanagan approached Cardinal Cushing, then Archbishop of Boston with his idea, and Cushing gave his support. Soon after, the Archbishop of Santa Fe, Edwin Byrne invited Flanagan to his diocese where he met his co-worker, Father John McHugh. The archbishop formally established the Society, as a pious union, on 16 July 1958, the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.
After several meetings, those who feel called to be either a priest or brother in the Society spend a Candidacy year in either Belize or Belcourt, North Dakota. This is a year when the candidates experience living simply and without many material comforts, enabling them to better understand the work of the Society. Those who remain interested, begin the novitiate year. Until 2011, this year was conducted in southern Colorado; now the novices spend the time at the Society’s house in Corpus Christi, Texas. This year is crucial, for it is then that the novices “…better understand their divine vocation, and indeed one which is proper to the institute, experience the manner of living of the institute, and form their mind and heart in its spirit, and so that their intention and suitability are tested.”
Thus, the novices are given the opportunity for longer periods of prayer and spiritual reading as well as silence in order to reflect on the vocation God is offering and nature of their response. The spiritual development of the novice is of particular focus, especially through spiritual direction. At the end the year the novices receive the habit of the Society and take the promises of poverty, chastity and obedience. It is then that the person officially becomes a member of the Society, for “By religious profession, members assume the observance of the three evangelical counsels by public vow, are consecrated to God through the ministry of the Church, and are incorporated into the institute with the rights and duties defined by law.”
Following the novitiate, religious formation continues in one of two directions.